LREC 2000 2nd International Conference on Language Resources & Evaluation

Papers and abstracts by paper title: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Papers and abstracts by ID number: 1-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, 301-350, 351-377.

List of all papers and abstracts

Paper Paper Title Abstract
153 Derivation in the Czech National Corpus The aim of this paper is to describe one the main means of Czech word formation - derivation. New Czech words are created by composition or by derivation (by using prefixes or suffixes). The suffixes which are added to the stem are used much more frequently than prefixes standing before the stem. The most frequent suffixes will be classified according to the paradigmatic and semantic properties and according to the changes they cause in the stem. The research is done on the Czech national corpus (CNC), the frequencies of the investigated suffixes illustrate their roductivity in present day Czech language. This research is of a particular value for a highly inflected language such as Czech. Possible applications of this system are various NLP systems, e.g. spelling checkers and machine translation systems. The results of this work serve for the computational processing of Czech word formation and in future for the creation of the Czech derivational dictionary.
237 Design and Construction of Knowledge base for Verb using MRD and Tagged Corpus This paper represents the procedure of building syntactic knowledge base. This study is to construct basic sentence pattern automatically by using the POS-tagged corpus in balanced KAIST corpus, and electronic dictionary for Korean, and to construct syntactic knowledge base with specific information added to the lexicographer's analysis. The summary of work process will be as follows: 1) Extraction of characteristic verb targeting the high frequency verb from KAIST corpus 2) Constructing sentence pattern from each verb case frame structure extracted from MRD 3) Making out the noun categories of sentence pattern through KCP examples 4) Semantic classification of selected verb suitable for classified sentence pattern 5) Description of hyper concept to individual noun categories 6) Putting the translated words in Japanese to each noun and verb
336 Design and Implementation of the Online ILSP Greek Corpus This paper presents the Hellenic National (HNC), which is the corpus of Modern Greek developed by the Institute for Language and Speech Processing (ILSP). The presentation describes all stages of the creation of the corpus: collection of the material, tagging and tokenizing, construction of the database and the online implementation which aims at rendering the corpus accessible over Internet to the research community.
286 Design Issues in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition Evaluation We discuss various considerations that have been involved in designing the past five annual NIST speaker recognition evaluations. These text-independent evaluations using conversational telephone speech have attracted state-of-the- art automatic systems from research sites around the world. The availability of appropriate data for sufficiently large test sets has been one key design consideration. There have also been variations in the specific task efinitions, the amount and type of training data provided, and the durations of the test segments. The microphone types of the handsets used, as well as the match or mismatch of training and test handsets, have been found to be important considerations that greatly affect system performance.
269 Design Methodology for Bilingual Pronunciation Dictionary This paper presents the design methodology for the bilingual pronunciation dictionary of sound reference usage, which reflects the cross-linguistic, dialectal, first language (L1) interfered, biological and allophonic variations. The design methodology features 1) the comprehensive coverage of allophonic variation, 2) concise data entry composed of a balanced distribution of dialects, genders, and ages of speakers, 3) bilingual data coverage including L1-interfered speech, and 4) eurhythmic arrangements of the recording material for temporal regularity. The recording consists of the triple way comparison of 1) English sounds spoken by native English speakers, 2) Korean sounds spoken by native Korean speakers, and 3) English sounds spoken by Korean speakers. This paper also presents 1) the quality controls and 2) the structure and format of the data. The intended usage of this “sound-based” bilingual dictionary aims at 1) cross-linguistic and acoustic research, 2) application to speech recognition, synthesis and translation, and 3) foreign language learning including exercises.
177 Design of Optimal Slovenian Speech Corpus for Use in the Concatenative Speech Synthesis System In the paper the development of Slovenian speech corpus for use in concatenative speech synthesis system being developed at University of Maribor, Slovenia, will be presented. The emphasis in the paper is the issue of maximising the usefulness of the defined speech corpus for concatenation purposes. Usefulness of the speech corpus very much depends on the corresponding text and can be increased if the appropriate text is chosen. In the approach we used, detailed statistics of the text corpora has been done, to be able to define the sentences, rich with non-uniform units like monophones, diphones and triphones.
20 Designing a Tool for Exploiting Bilingual Comparable Corpora Translators have a real need for a tool that will allow them to exploit information contained in bilingual comparable corpora. ExTrECC is designed to be a semi-automatic tool that processes bilingual comparable corpora and presents a translator with a list of potential equivalents (in context) of the search term. The task of identifying translation equivalents in a non-aligned, non-translated corpus is a difficult one, and ExTrECC makes use of a number of techniques, some of which are simple and others more sophisticated. The basic design of ExTrECC (graphical user interface, architecture, algorithms) is outlined in this paper.
139 Determining the Tolerance of Text-handling Tasks for MT Output With the explosion of the internet and access to increased amounts of information provided by international media, the need to process this abundance of information in an efficient and effective manner has become critical. The importance of machine translation (MT) in the stream of information processing has become apparent. With this new demand on the user community comes the need to assess an MT system before adding such a system to the user’s current suite of text-handling applications. The MT Functional Proficiency Scale project has developed a method for ranking the tolerance of a variety of information processing tasks to possibly poor MT output. This ranking allows for the prediction of an MT system’s usefulness for particular text-handling tasks.
329 Developing a Multilingual Telephone Based Information System in African Languages This paper introduces the first project of its kind within the Southern African language engineering context. It focuses on the role of idiosyncratic linguistic and pragmatic features of the different languages concerned and how these features are to be accommodated within (a) the creation of applicable speech corpora and (b) the design of the system at large. An introduction to the multilingual realities of South Africa and its implications for the development of databases is followed by a description of the system and different options that may be implemented in the system.
349 Developing and Testing General Models of Spoken Dialogue System Peformance The design of methods for performance evaluation is a major open research issue in the area of spoken language dialogue systems. This paper presents the PARADISE methodology for developing predictive models of spoken dialogue performance, and shows how to evaluate the predictive power and generalizability of such models. To illustrate the methodology, we develop a number of models for predicting system usability (as measured by user satisfaction), based on the application of PARADISE to experimental data from two different spoken dialogue systems. We compare both linear and tree-based models. We then measure the extent to which the models generalize across different systems, different experimental conditions, and different user populations, by testing models trained on a subset of the corpus against a test set of dialogues. The results show that the models generalize well across the two systems, and are thus a first approximation towards a general performance model of system usability.
287 Developing Guidelines and Ensuring Consistency for Chinese Text Annotation With growing interest in Chinese Language Processing, numerous NLP tools (e.g. word segmenters, part-of-speech taggers, and parsers) for Chinese have been developed all over the world. However, since no large-scale bracketed corpora are available to the public, these tools are trained on the corpora with different segmentation criteria, part-of-speech tagsets and bracketing guidelines, and therefore, comparisons are difficult. As a first step towards addressing this issue, we have been preparing a 100-thousand-word bracketed corpus since late 1998 and plan to release it to the public summer 2000. In this paper, we will address several challenges in building the corpus, namely, creating annotation guidelines, ensuring annotation accuracy and maintaining a high level of community involvement.
95 Development and Evaluation of an Italian Broadcast News Corpus This paper reports on the development and evaluation of an Italian broadcast news corpus at ITC-irst, under a contract with the Euro-pean Language resources Distribution Agency (ELDA). The corpus consists of 30 hours of recordings transcribed and annotated with conventions similar to those adopted by the Linguistic Data Consortium for the DARPA HUB-4 corpora. The corpus will be completed and released to ELDA by April 2000.
90 Development of Acoustic and Linguistic Resources for Research and Evaluation in Interactive Vocal Information Servers This paper describes the setting up of a resource database for research and evaluation in the domain of interactive vocal information servers. All this resource development work took place in a research project aiming at the development of an advanced speech recognition system for the automatic processing of telephone directory requests and was performed on the basis of the Swiss-French Polyphone database (collected in the framework of the European SpeechDat project). Due to the unavailability of a properly orthographically transcribed, consistently labeled and tagged database of unconstrained speech (together with its associated lexicon) for the targeted area, we first concentrated on the annotation and structuration of the spoken requests data in order to make it profitable for lexical and linguistic modeling and for the evaluation of recognition results. A baseline speech recognition system was then trained on the newly developed resources and tested. Preliminary recognition experiments showed a relative improvement of 46% for the Word Error Rate (WER) compared to the results previously obtained with a baseline system very similar but working on the unconsistent natural speech database that was originally available.
38 Dialogue and Prompting Strategies Evaluation in the DEMON System In order to improve usability and efficiency of dialogue systems a major issue is of better adapting dialogue systems to intended users. This requires a good knowledge of users’ behaviour when interacting with a dialogue system. With this regard we based evaluations of dialogue and prompting strategies performed on our system on how they influence users answers. In this paper we will describe the measure we used to evaluate the effect of the size of the welcome prompt and a set measures we defined to evaluate three different confirmation strategies. We will then describe five criteria we used to evaluate system’s question complexity and their effect on users’ answers. The overall aim is to design a set of metrics that could be used to automatically decide which of the possible prompts at a given state in a dialogue should be uttered.
33 Dialogue Annotation for Language Systems Evaluation The evaluation of Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems is still an open problem demanding further research progress from the research community to establish general evaluation frameworks. In this paper we present an experimental multilevel annotation process to be followed during the testing phase of Spoken Language Dialogue Systems (SLDSs). Based on this process we address some issues related to an annotation scheme of evaluation dialogue corpora and particular annotation tools and processes.